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In the following example, the required input field is announced as "Full Name Asterisk" in most screen readers. An experienced user will probably know what this is intended for, but many users will have no clue. Required input with asterisk.

COUNT(*) function

As the text explanation "required field" even is below the submit button of the form, a screen reader user probably will never read it, as activating the button usually is the last thing a user does when filling a form. As we know from Placing non-interactive content between form controls , the text "required field" can be associated to the form control by using aria-describedby.

And as we now do not need the text by itself anymore for screen readers, we can also hide it from them using aria-hidden see Hiding elements from screen readers using aria-hidden.

Required input with asterisk and ARIA. The screen reader now announces the control as required - but it also announces the confusing asterisks. Required input with hidden asterisks and ARIA.


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In our case, it is a fancy SVG graphic. Then we simply add the text "required" as a visually hidden element for more info, see Hiding elements correctly.

OLQ Batch How to format COUNT(*) or other derived/functions for OUTFILE

Required input with asterisks as icons. And if you really want to make it fancy, you could combine this technique with a tooltip showing "Required" on hover: Tooltip widgets or: screen tip, balloon.


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  • Instead of a applying a visually hidden text "required", one can set a required attribute to the input: this makes screen readers announce an input as a required one. The results are below. The times displayed are relative to the fastest run per database product. This removes any distraction that may be caused by interpreting actual execution times as we do not want to compare database products against each other. I would have expected it to be less.

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    Curious to hear about your own results in the comments, or further ideas why this is so significant in PostgreSQL. Do note that the benchmark only tried a very simple query! The results might be different when using joins, unions, or any other SQL constructs, or in other edge cases, e.

    6.1i XST -

    For other interesting optimisations that do not depend on the cost model, see this article here. View all posts by lukaseder. RUN 1, Statement 1: 1. Thanks for the feedback. Will be very curious to learn how HSQL performs here. Not sure if the mysql test case is relevant in this case. Using a cursor forces the use of a temporary table and this has a huge penalty in performance compared with the size of the dataset.

    Transact-SQL COUNT(*) vs COUNT(column) vs COUNT(1)

    Very interesting, thanks for sharing. Do you have a suggestion that allows for averaging out hundreds of executions? You can check this on your on :. Tom Kyte now-retired Oracle guru and the guy formerly behind AskTom had to disprove this myth a few times by posting test cases and showing the plans as well as timings.

    Some people just want to repeat performance tidbits they heard without ever verifying them. The SQL ecosystem is full of people who make spurious claims about SQL performance based on some syntax, without the least bit of verification. They should be equally fast, if run by a perfect optimiser. You are commenting using your WordPress.

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